XXII.14 How the exchange hinders despotic states

, par Stewart

Muscovy would like to come down from its despotism, and cannot. The establishment of commerce requires establishment of the exchange, and the operation of the exchange contradict all her laws.

In 1745 the Czarina issued a decree expelling the Jews, because they had placed in foreign countries the money of those who were relegated to Siberia and of foreigners who were in the service. All subjects of the empire, like slaves, are forbidden to take or send out their assets without permission. The exchange, which offers the means of moving money from one country to another, is therefore incompatible with the laws of Muscovy.

Commerce itself contradicts her laws. The people is made up only of slaves attached to the land and slaves called ecclesiastics or gentlemen because they are the lords of those slaves ; almost no one therefore remains for the third estate, which must train workers and merchants.