Montesquieu

Freedom of com­merce is not an ope­ning gran­ted to dea­lers to do what they wish ; that would rather be its ser­vi­tude. What impe­des the mer­chant does not neces­sa­rily impede com­merce. It is in lands of liberty that the dea­ler finds contra­dic­tions without num­ber, and he is never less thwar­ted by the laws than in lands of ser­vi­tude.

England for­bids the export of her wools ; she wants coal brought by sea to the capi­tal ; she does not allow the export of her hor­ses unless they are gel­ded ; her colo­nies’ ves­sels that trade in Europe must drop anchor in England.1 She impe­des the dea­ler, but it is to the bene­fit of com­merce.

Navigation Act of 1660. It was only in time of war that Boston and Philadelphia sent their vessels bearing their commodities directly to the Mediterranean.