Montesquieu
 

XX.5 On peoples who have engaged in commerce of economy

Marseille, a neces­sary retreat in the midst of a stormy sea ; Marseille, that place where all the winds, shal­lows, and coas­tal confi­gu­ra­tion make it obli­ga­tory to drop anchor, was fre­quen­ted by sea­men. Its bar­ren sur­roun­dings pre­de­ter­mi­ned its citi­zens for com­merce of eco­nomy.1They had to be hard-wor­king to make up for unfor­gi­ving nature ; they had to be just in order to live among the bar­ba­rian nations that were to make their pros­pe­rity ; they had to be mode­rate, so their govern­ment would fore­ver be tran­quil ; in short, they had to have fru­gal ways in order always to live by a com­merce which they would more surely pre­serve if it was less advan­ta­geous.

Everywhere we have seen vio­lence and vexa­tion giving rise to com­merce of eco­nomy, when men are for­ced to take refuge in mar­shes, in islands, in the shoals of the sea and even in its reefs. That is how Tyre, Venice, and the cities of Holland were foun­ded : fugi­ti­ves found their secu­rity there. They had to live ; they drew their sub­sis­tence from the whole world.2

Justinus, book XLIII, ch. iii.

[Added before the next chapter in the edition of 1758 is a chapter corresponding to Annex 9.]