When a monarch conquers a large state, there is an admi­ra­ble prac­tice, equally well-cho­sen for mode­ra­ting des­po­tism and for pre­ser­ving the conquest ; the conque­rors of China made use of it.

In order not to dis­may the van­qui­shed peo­ple, and not to puff up the vic­tor, in order to pre­vent the govern­ment from tur­ning mili­tary, and to hold the two peo­ples to their duty, the Tartar family that now rei­gns in China has deci­ded that each corps of troops in the pro­vin­ces is to be com­po­sed of half Chinese and half Tartars, so the jea­lousy bet­ween the two nations will hold them to their duty. The tri­bu­nals as well are half Chinese, half Tartar. Several good effects flow from this : first, the two nations contain each other ; second, they both retain mili­tary and civil autho­rity, and one is not obli­te­ra­ted by the other ; third, the conque­ring nation can spread eve­ryw­here without wea­ke­ning and undoing itself. She beco­mes capa­ble of hol­ding out through civil and foreign wars. This is such a sen­si­ble ins­ti­tu­tion that almost all those who have conque­red on the ground have been undone for want of one like it.