Montesquieu

It does not suf­fice, in the tri­bu­nals of the realm, for there to be evi­dence enough to convince the jud­ges ; it is also neces­sary that this evi­dence be for­mal, in other words legal ; and the law requi­res that there be two wit­nes­ses against the accu­sed ; ano­ther piece of evi­dence would not suf­fice. Now if a man pre­su­med guilty of what is cal­led a high crime, had found the means of sen­ding the wit­nes­ses away so it was impos­si­ble to have him condem­ned by the law, an indi­vi­dual bill of attain­der could be pas­sed against him, in other words, a sin­gle law on his per­son could be made. The pro­ce­dure is the same as for all other bills : it must be pas­sed in the two cham­bers, and the king must give his consent ; other­wise there is no bill, in other words, no ver­dict. The accu­sed can have his lawyers speak against the bill, they may speak for the bill in the cham­ber.