Montesquieu

Charlemagne fea­red lest those he pla­ced in dis­tant pla­ces be incli­ned to revolt ; he thought he would find more doci­lity in eccle­sias­tics : thus he erec­ted a large num­ber of bisho­prics in Germany, and atta­ched large fiefs to them.1 It appears from some char­ters that the clau­ses contai­ning the pre­ro­ga­ti­ves of these fiefs were not dif­fe­rent from those that were usually put into these conces­sions,2 although today we see the prin­ci­pal eccle­sias­tics of Germany inves­ted with sove­reign autho­rity. However that may be, these were pie­ces he was put­ting for­ward against the Saxons. What he could not expect from the indo­lence or negli­gence of a leude, he thought he was entit­led to expect from the zeal and active atten­tion of a bishop ; besi­des which, such a vas­sal, far from using the sub­ject peo­ples against him, would on the contrary need him to main­tain him­self against his peo­ples.

See among others the foundation of the archbishopric of Brème, in capitulary year 789, Baluze ed., p. 245.

For example, the prohibition to royal judges from entering the territory to demand the freda and other duties. I have spoken at length of it in the preceding book.