Montesquieu

The chur­ches having become poor, the kings aban­do­ned elec­tions to bisho­prics and other eccle­sias­ti­cal bene­fi­ces.1 Princes were less concer­ned with naming the minis­ters, and the clai­mants made less appeal to their autho­rity. Thus the Church recei­ved a sort of com­pen­sa­tion for its pro­per­ties that had been taken.

And if Louis the Debonaire left to the Roman peo­ple the right to elect the popes,2 that was an effect of the gene­ral spi­rit of his time ; one gover­ned one­self with res­pect to the See of Rome as one did with res­pect to the others.

See capitulary of Charlemagne, year 803, art. 2, Baluze ed., p. 379, and the edict of Louis the Debonaire, 834, in Goldaste, Constit. Imperiale, vol. 1.

This is said in the famous canon Ego Ludovicus, which is visibly supposed. It is in the Baluze ed., p. 591 on the year 817.