We have just seen that the laws of edu­ca­tion must be rela­tive to the prin­ci­ple of each govern­ment. The same applies to laws which the legis­la­tor makes for the whole society. This rela­tion­ship of the laws to that prin­ci­ple pri­mes all the govern­ment’s resour­ces, and that prin­ci­ple in turn recei­ves added force from them. In simi­lar fashion, in phy­si­cal move­ments action is always fol­lo­wed by a reac­tion.

We shall now exa­mine this rela­tion­ship in each govern­ment ; and we shall begin with the repu­bli­can state, the prin­ci­ple of which is vir­tue.